|General Classification||Beach volleyball began in California in 1950. At the time some people who had a vacation at the beach came up with an idea. They put up a piece of rope as a net and played volleyball. Shortly afterwards, many women and men liked to play it. Therefore, in 1985 the Volleyball Federation recognized it, and in the following year it organized an international beach volleyball competition in Rio de Jeneiro, Brazil.|
|Description||Beach volleyball and traditional volleyball look the same but actually they are different. What are the similarities and differences between them? The similarities are as follows. Games must be played on the courts of the same size, and they also have nets. The techniques of playing the games are almost the same. Every set of each game consists of 15 points. However, traditional volleyball has more players than beach volleyball. That is, it has 6 players while beach volleyball has only 2 players in each team. Besides, traditional volleyball can be played in a stadium, a sport hall, or anywhere outside. Beach volleyball is only played on the sand at the beach.
In Indonesia beach volleyball has begun to be more popular and interesting recently. International competitions have been held in several places such as Bali, Lombok, and Jakarta (Ancol). However, it should be introduced and developed further in other areas in Indonesia, especially areas of beautiful beaches like Maluku, Sulawesi, and Irian Jaya.
Eagles are large birds of prey which mainly inhabit Eurasia and Africa. Outside these two areas, just two species (the Bald and Golden Eagles) can be found in North America – (north of Mexico), a few species in Central and South America, and three others in Australia.
Eagles are differentiated from other birds of prey mainly by their larger size, more powerful build, and heavier head and bill. Even the smallest eagles, like the Booted Eagle (which is comparable in size to a Common Buzzard or Red-tailed Hawk), have relatively longer and more evenly broad wings, and more direct, faster flight. Most eagles are larger than any other raptors apart from the vultures. Like all birds of prey, eagles have very large powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, and powerful talons. They also have extremely keen eyesight to enable them to spot potential prey from a very long distance. This keen eyesight is primarily contributed by their extremely large pupils which cause minimal diffraction (scattering) of the incoming light.
Australia is home to 25 of the world’s 30 monitor lizard species. In Australia, monitor lizards are called goannas.
Goannas have flattish bodies, long tails and strong jaws. They are the only lizards with forked tongues, like a snake. Their necks are long and may have loose folds of skin beneath them. Their legs are long and strong, with sharp claws on their feet. Many goannas have
stripes, spots and other markings that help to camouflage them. The largest species can grow to more than two metres in length.
All goannas are daytime hunters. They run, climb and swim well. Goannas hunt small mammals, birds and other reptiles. They also eat dead animals. Smaller goannas eat insects, spiders and worms.
Male goannas fight with each other in the breeding season. Females lay between two and twelve eggs.
Do you know what is the largest lizard? This lizard is called komodo. It lives in the scrub and woodland of a few Indonesian islands.
Komodo dragon is the world’s heaviest lizard, weighing 150 pounds or more. The largest Komodo ever measured was more than 10 feet (3 meters) long and weighed 366 pounds (166 kg) but the average size of komodo in the wild is about 8 feet (2.5 meters) long and 200 pounds (91 kg)
Komodo has gray scaly skin, a pointed snout, powerful limbs and a muscular tail. They use their keen sense of smell to locate decaying animal remains from several miles away. They also hunt other lizards as well as large mammals and are sometimes cannibalistic.
The Komodo dragon’s teeth are almost completely covered by its gums. When it feeds, the gums bleed, creating an ideal culture for virulent bacteria. The bacteria that live in the Komodo dragon’s saliva causes septicemia, or blood poisoning, in its victims. A dragon will bite its prey, then follow it until the animal is too weak to carry on.
This lizard species is threatened by hunting, loss of prey species and habitat loss.
Most people don’t notice that giraffes have different patterns of spots. Certain species of giraffes have small spots. Other species have large spots. Some species have spots than are very regular. You can tell where one spot ends and another begins.
Other species have spots that are kind of blotchy. This means the spots are not set off from each other as clearly. These are only two of many kind of spots. The pattern of giraffe’s spots is called “marking”. No two giraffes have exactly the same marking.
Giraffe’s spots help them to blend in with their surroundings in Africa where they live. Being able to blend with surroundings helps animals survive. If a lion can’t see a giraffe, he certainly can’t eat it. This is called ‘protective coloration’. The animal’s colour helps to protect it.
Another thing that protects giraffes is their keen eyesight. Their large eyes are on the sides of their heads. Giraffes see anything that moves. They can see another animal a mile away. It is very hard to sneak up on a giraffe. Those who try usually get a quick kick with a powerful back leg.
Penguins are birds that cannot fly. There are eighteen different species. They are all splendid swimmers and can propel themselves through the water at rate of 30 kilometers per hour. They live only in the southern seas of the world, on the island of Australia, in New Zealand, South Africa and southern South America. Those that live in the snow and ice cannot build nests.
The biggest are the Emperor penguins which stand about 1.2 meters and weigh about 75 kilograms. When a female lays an egg, it is the male that keeps it off the ice by resting it on top of his feet. When the chick hatches, the male, which will not have eaten for two months, then goes off to feed while the female stays with the chick to-feed and protect it.
Adelle penguins gather in huge colonies, sometimes as many as half a million in one group.
Rock hopper penguins are so called because of the way they hop from rock to rock. They have long crests on their heads. Their chicks are covered with soft down when hathced. They are helpless at first and needed to be looked for several weeks.
As far back as 1499 it was noted that the jackass penguin brayed like an ass. It is also known as the black-footed penguin. Gentoo penguins live on many of the Antartic islands. They are very friendly and do not fear man. King penguins also live in the Antartic. They toboggan on their stomachs at the great speed on the ice to escape their enemies.